National Issue Forum: Addressing Personnel Shortages and the Recruitment of Special Education, Mathematics, and Science Teachers in At-Risk Schools

May 24–25, 2006
Sofitel Chicago O'Hare, Rosemont, Illinois

Summary: Day 1

Welcome and Introductions

Sabrina Laine, Ph.D., director of the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality , welcomed participants and described how the work of National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality fits in with that of the comprehensive centers. She provided an overview of National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality's mission statement, operating principals, and capacity-building framework and touched on teacher recruitment issues across the country.

Dr. Laine explained that this national forum is the first in a series of forums that will be revised in scope to address a regional audience. The primary goals of the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality forum are the following:

  • To build knowledge and resource foundation
  • To learn emerging strategies and practices
  • To build capacity to share and apply knowledge base
  • To use applicable tools and resources to identify data trends around special education, mathematics, and science

In an effort to help participants organize the vast amount of resources available on teacher quality and build their own resource libraries, a resource binder will be issued at each of these forums.

Keynote Address—Moderator: Dan Reschly, Vanderbilt University

Addressing Personnel Shortages and the Recruitment of Special Education, Mathematics, and Science Teachers in At-Risk Schools

Richard Ingersoll, Ph.D., researcher on teacher quality and supply-and-demand issues with the University of Pennsylvania, presented his perspectives and national data on the teacher shortage—in terms of teachers moving and leaving the profession—and how this crisis specifically relates to mathematics, science, and special education. He discussed some of the quantifiable and nonquantifiable consequences associated with teacher turnover, including the negative impact on community and instructional coherency. The teacher staffing issue also has created an obstacle to meeting No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requirements. Dr. Ingersoll suggests addressing these challenges not by recruiting but by taking a closer look at, and perhaps changing, how schools are organized.

With 55,000 teachers; 12,000 schools; and all 50 states participating, the Schools and Staffing Survey and Teacher Follow-Up Survey are the nation's largest sources of information available on teachers. The following are a few of the revealing results presented by Dr. Ingersoll:

  • The survey results demonstrate high teacher turnover in terms of entrants and departures within a year period. With a teacher force of more than 3.4 million, there were more than 534,000 entrants and more than 546,000 departures.
  • Urban or less privileged schools lose 2.5 times the number of teachers per year than suburban or more privileged schools.
  • Retirement and school staffing actions (e.g., firings, closings) make up the smallest percentage of teachers leaving or moving.
  • Dissatisfied special education teachers make up the largest percentage of teachers leaving or moving.

Presentation and Roundtable Discussions

Cortney Rowland, National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, provided an overview of the Planning Tool to Provide Evidence of Progress Toward Equitable Teacher Distribution and set the stage for the roundtable discussions and remaining activities for the day.

Participants discussed within their groups, recorded notes, and posted them on chart paper around the room.

Best Practices Panel—Moderator: Phoebe Gillespie

Phoebe Gillespie, National Center for Special Education Personnel and Related Service Providers, introduced the panel members after providing a brief overview of her organization's work and objectives, which follow:

  • Data, planning, and management of data systems are the focus areas for collaboration on personnel needs.
  • Helping states develop data-management planning processes to look at how many people are entering and completing the special education program is an objective.
  • Providing strategic action planning is an objective.

The Watkins Group: Engaging the Community in Recruitment and Retention

Vincent Watkins, The Watkins Group, shared his organization's innovative model for involving the community in the recruitment of teachers and highlighted how his approach contrasts with more conventional teacher-recruitment models. Highlights from this presentation include the following:

  • The focus is on ensuring that candidates know the language, culture, and religion of the target audience.
  • It is important to involve community stakeholders in the process by linking the five islands: religion, residence, business, education, and recreation.
  • The community's involvement in the process of hiring teachers is a fulfillment of civic responsibility. The organization emphasizes this belief by defining and assigning specific roles for candidates, facilitators, and supporters in the process.

The Watkins Group has received increased interest in its services throughout the 15 states in which it works, and there have been reports of increased diversity in recruiting.

Clark County Schools in Las Vegas: Recruitment Initiatives

George Ann Rice, Clark County Schools, discussed several community-focused programs currently being implemented in Clark County Schools. Many of the programs are based on the same concepts that drive The Watkins Group's recruiting model. Others were developed to address the school district's unique needs. Based in Las Vegas, Clark County is the fastest growing county in the state and producing only 25 percent of the teachers needed. They also are faced with recruitment and retention challenges indigenous to gaming-industry communities. Following are highlights of some of the district's innovative incentive programs:

  • The chamber of commerce and other business partners are involved in the teacher-recruitment process. When offers go out to teacher candidates, business partners are prompted by e-mail to contact the candidate in order to promote the community.
  • Clark County provides temporary housing and loans to assist candidates who are in need and have come to the state to apply for positions.
  • Teachers who come on board early to participate in the learning community are moved up on the salary schedule.
  • Clark County is using local celebrities, billboards, bus stop ads, and movie trailers to advertise the importance of education.

Virginia Commonwealth University: META Program

Terry Dozier, Virginia Commonwealth University, discussed some of the current work of the Metropolitan Educational Training Alliance (META) alternative licensure program for special education teachers. The organization, founded in February 2001, is a partnership of the Virginia counties of Chesterfield, Hanover, and Henrico; the Richmond Public Schools; and the School of Education at Virginia Commonwealth University. The organization provides the framework to identify needs and opportunities shared by all of the districts around alternative certification for special education teachers. Following are highlights from Dozier's discussion:

  • META targets instructional aids with at least a bachelor's degree to become special education teachers.
  • Since META's inception in 2002, 42 instructional aids have participated.
  • Since META's inception, 35 instructional aids have been hired by the META school districts.
  • Since META's inception, 3 instructional aids have been selected as Teacher of the Year for their schools.

Roundtable Discussion

Based on the information presented by the panelists, participants used a set of guiding questions to discuss in their groups how to apply the recruiting and retention strategies in their own regions and states.

National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality Online Resources

Cortney Rowland provided an introduction to the resources available on the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. She discussed how the online resources are linked directly to and support National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality's goals, and they are designed to promote the successful implementation of teacher quality initiatives. Rowland walked participants through the website, focusing on resources relevant to mathematics, science, and special education. She navigated and described the following tools:

  • HOUSSE (high objective uniform state standard of evaluation) database
  • Paraprofessional database
  • TQ Tips and Tools: Emerging Strategies to Enhance Teacher Quality

Conclusion and Debrief

Amy Jackson, National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, thanked participants and presenters and provided logistical information for the subsequent events.

Summary: Day 2

Keynote Address—Moderator: Paul Kimmelman

American Competitiveness Initiative

Patricia Ross, U.S. Department of Education, opened her discussion by recalling that the first release of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data was one of the major events that drew attention to mathematics and science data in this country. The idea that individual schools, districts, and states could be prepared internationally—and compared in mathematics and science—sparked the nation's interest in closely gauging the performance of schools across the country. It had become apparent that American students compete internationally as well as locally.

Ross went on to discuss the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI), introduced by President George W. Bush in January 2006. ACI is an aggressive long-term plan aimed at strengthening the nation's mathematics and science infrastructure. To support the wide range of programs proposed under this initiative, the president has requested $5.9 billion for distribution in 2007 and $136 billion in the next 10 years. As part of the ACI, funding is being proposed to support a variety of programs and innovations, including work in biology, research and development, energy conservation, and workforce training; however, a significant share of the ACI proposals being considered in Congress address mathematics and science education. Following are highlights of some of those plans:

  • A national mathematics panel has been formed to create a research framework of effective practices and instruction in mathematics and science. The panel has been appointed by executive order to draft and submit a report by January 2007. This ambitious schedule is based on the need to use the research from this study to inform two major mathematics initiatives. Progress on these initiatives can be tracked on the U.S. Department of Education website.
    • Math Now for Elementary School Students is similar to Reading First in design. However, instead of being run by the state, this federal program will be based on principles of research aimed at preparing students for more rigorous mathematics instruction in middle and high school. The idea is to create a curriculum and intervention that prepares children to take algebra by eighth grade.
    • Math Now for Middle School Students is similar to the Striving Readers Initiative in that its main purpose is to develop models to help accelerate struggling mathematics students.
  • Congress currently is considering the president's proposal to include science assessments as part of adequate yearly progress reporting.
  • The Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate (AP/IB) program is aimed at expanding access for low-income high school students by training 75,000 teachers to lead AP/IB mathematics, increasing student participation to 1.5 million in five years, and increasing the number of AP/IB mathematics and science tests passed by low-income students.

Keynote Q & A

How do teachers become eligible for the federal loan-forgiveness program?

  • Certified mathematics, science, and special education teachers who have been teaching in challenging schools with at least a 30 percent low-income student population for at least five years are eligible to receive up to $17,500 in loan forgiveness.
  • At least one of the five qualifying years of teaching must have occurred after the 1997–98 academic year.
  • The loan must have been made before the end of the fifth year of qualifying teaching.
  • The elementary or secondary school must be public or private nonprofit.
  • The program applies only to student loans and does not work along with or the same as a tuition-reimbursement program.

What federal incentives are in place to help elementary and middle school teachers reach their goal of having students proficient in algebra by eighth grade?

  • The Mathematics and Science Partnerships program serves that very purpose. It is intended to increase the academic achievement of students in mathematics and science by enhancing the content knowledge and teaching skills of classroom teachers. Partnerships are formed between the school districts and higher education science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty as well as with other organizations, including state education agencies and nonprofit or for-profit businesses.

How can the federal government create incentives for universities to change their preservice programs to increase mathematics standards?

  • There is a lot of interest and conversation about preservice preparation and how to create incentives for change in universities. However, this is an area over which the government has very little control.

Has any thought been given to how the adjunct teacher initiative can be reconciled with the highly qualified teacher requirement?

  • Yes, there has been a lot of conversation about this topic. There are provisions for what would be required. As part of the program of support, adjunct teachers would be provided with the pedagogical skills needed to teach as they draw the connections between mathematics and science and the private and public business sectors.

Best Practices Panel—Facilitator: Chris Reising

Chris Reising, Southern California Teacher Recruitment and Support Center, set the context for the upcoming panel and roundtable discussions by emphasizing the importance of mathematics and science and the current teacher recruitment and retention efforts across the country. Reising referred to Ingesoll's May 24, 2006, keynote address, which focused more on retention than recruitment, noting that one issue cannot be discussed in isolation of the other.

California has had the good fortune of stable teacher-retention rates, partly due to the state's induction program. However, with $150 million in recruitment efforts eliminated and the university system's goal of doubling the number of mathematics and science teachers by 2010, California's focus is on reestablishing recruitment centers to replenish the teacher supply.

The New Teacher Project

Ariela Rozman, The New Teacher Project, discussed strategies to effectively recruit and hire mathematics and science teachers in urban areas and presented examples from a New York City case study on how strategies can be implemented to address this critical need.

Even with the New York City Teaching Fellows alternate-certification program, the state still has not produced enough teachers to fill vacancies because many of those created by the New York state mandate in 2000 only replaced noncertified teachers with certified ones. Rozman advised using the following four strategies to help boost the recruitment and hiring of mathematics and science teachers.

  • Strategy 1
    • Implement rigorous recruitment strategies. Many districts look at alternate routes as a last resort, but there are quality routes. Select high-quality candidates from other professions and inspire or convince them to join the teaching profession.
  • Strategy 2
    • Study sample data, look at the impact of marketing strategies, understand costs associated with each applicant, invest in several different marketing options (e.g., Internet, job sites, local forums, business site links), and view the results formatively.
  • Strategy 3
    • Take a streamlined approach to customer service, ensuring that the recruitment and hiring process is efficient and dates are well defined and communicated to applicants. If faulty timelines are unavoidable, make meaningful contact with applicants to explain the situation, and extend the following additional courtesies to priority candidates:
      • Phone call from a mathematics or science teacher
      • Postcard from a student
      • News update on what is going on in the district
  • Strategy 4
    • Take advantage of the New York City Teaching Fellows Math Immersion program, which helps candidates who are interested in teaching mathematics (but did not major in the field) gain the credits they need to teach mathematics in the New York City public schools.

The Center for Teaching Quality: 2006 Teaching and Learning Conditions Surveys

Eric Hirsch, Center for Teaching Quality, discussed the 2006 results of the Teaching and Learning Conditions surveys, which gathered data on teacher working conditions from 125,000 educators in six states. Findings across the states were consistent and included the following:

  • Although mathematics and science teaching positions are hard to staff, they do not differ significantly from other areas.
  • Rural districts need to rely on recruiting teachers through alternate routes, but these candidates often are not highly qualified.
  • Rural and urban educators leave at about the same rate; however, rural teachers are less likely to leave because there is nowhere to go.
  • There is less teacher movement in schools that are organized for success with strong leaders.

South Carolina Department of Education

Janice Poda, South Carolina Department of Education, discussed state initiatives to recruit teachers into the teaching profession and the classroom. Poda pointed out that while there are distinct differences between recruiting objectives and approaches to bringing teachers into the profession versus the classroom, both are challenging with their own set of obstacles to overcome. Following are some of the current recruiting efforts:

  • Recruitment Into the Profession
    • The Teacher Cadet Program gives high school seniors the opportunity to explore the teaching profession. Many states have adopted a concept that is aimed at inspiring high school students to go into teaching by educating them about the profession, providing them with field experience, incorporating mathematics and science into the curriculum, and exposing them to an overall positive experience in the program.
    • ProTeam is designed to make middle school and ninth-grade students aware of the skills needed to complete college and make them consider education as a viable career option. Research says that students decide by age 14 what they are not going to do as a profession, and one of them is teaching.
  • Recruitment Into the Classroom
    • The Program of Alternative Certification for Educators was started in 1984. This program was designed for career changers and produces more mathematics and science teachers than education preparatory programs in South Carolina. In addition, it is the single largest producer of teachers in the state; it requires that candidates pass a test in content before entering the program and a pedagogy test before receiving a license.
    • is a national job applicant website that offers access to job seekers and schools.
    • Project CREATE (Centers for the Re-Education and Advancement of Teachers in Special Education) is a personnel preparation project initially funded by the South Carolina Office of Exceptional Children to provide coursework and textbooks for out-of-field permit special education teachers and other special education teachers pursuing full certification. Within two years, there was a significant decrease in special education shortages due to this program.
  • Retention
    • Incentives include a mentor program as well as money for Teacher of the Year.

Q & A

Are signing bonuses an effective strategy for recruiting and retaining teachers?

  • Signing bonuses should not be excluded from the package, but alone they do not accomplish much. The Working Conditions Survey reveals that only 18 percent of teachers feel there is mutual trust. In addition, every single nonfinancial incentive was reported as more important than signing bonuses.
  • Teachers have been known to go from district to district accepting signing bonuses. Signing bonuses are more of a short-term fix. South Carolina would like to see longer term financial incentives.

Has the state received opposition from the teachers union with regard to financial incentives for teachers?

  • There are no teachers unions in South Carolina. The state is more focused on teaching and learning conditions than on salary. However, it does need a cooperative model.
  • School district salary-incentive proposals, such as differentiated pay for differentiated roles (i.e., special education teachers) have not been presented to the American Federation of Teachers or the National Education Association. Therefore, they have not been met with opposition from these organizations.
  • Engaging unions is a must.

How important is technology in addressing teacher shortage? What are the barriers to more implementation of technology?

  • Teaching is about relationships, and technology does not promote this aspect.
  • Some of the issues and barriers are the following:
    • Certification
    • Lack of principal control
    • Potential for poor quality
    • With no teacher, it is uncertain what level or quality a support person would be in classrooms with students.
    • Even with the infrastructure in place, there would be limited skill level, especially among veteran teachers.

Expert Roundtable Presentations and Discussions—Eric Hirsch, Kawanda McLendon, Janice Poda, Chris Reising, George Ann Rice, Ariela Rozman, Rebecca Villarreal, and Amanda Riviera

Following the panel presentations and discussions, the roundtable experts each delivered a short presentation on a topic of their choice, stemming from the larger discussions around research, initiatives, barriers, and opportunities in recruitment work. They then used a set of guiding questions to lead discussions at their tables.

Conclusion, Debrief, and Next Steps

Amy Jackson closed the two-day session with thanks and a request for the submission of evaluation surveys. She also informed participants that a summary of the forum and resources will be posted to the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality website.


National Issue Forum: Recruitment of Special Education, Mathematics, and Science Teachers in At-Risk Schools
Sabrina Laine, Ph.D., Learning Point Associates/National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality

Keynote Address: Is There Really a Shortage of Mathematics, Science and Special Education Teachers?
Richard M. Ingersoll, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania

Leadership for Personnel Development: State, Local and Higher Ed Collaboration
Phoebe Gillespie, Ph.D., The National Center for Special Education Personnel and Related Service Providers at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education

Engaging the Community in Recruitment and Retention
Vincent Watkins, The Watkins Group

META Alternate Licensure Program for Special Education Teachers
Terry Dozier, Ed.D., Virginia Commonwealth University Center for Teacher Leadership

Online Resources
Cortney Rowland, Learning Point Associates/National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality

Teacher Supply Issues
Chris Reising, Southern California Teacher Recruitment and Support Center

Recruiting Math and Science Teachers in Urban Areas: Strategies and Results
Ariela Rozman, The New Teacher Project

Recruiting and Retaining Math and Science Teachers in Rural Schools
Eric Hirsch, Center for Teaching Quality

Best Practices in Recruitment of Math and Science Teachers
Janice Poda, Ph.D., South Carolina Department of Education

Presenter Bios

Terry Dozier, Ed.D.
Dr. Dozier is the director of the Center for Teacher Leadership (CTL) at the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Education where she also serves as national teacher in residence and associate professor in the School of Education. CTL works with accomplished teachers throughout Virginia and the nation to do the following:

  • Promote the concept of teachers as leaders of change.
  • Develop more effective teacher leaders through access to information and high-quality training.
  • Share the knowledge, experience, and insight of teachers with policymakers and others.

Dr. Dozier also chairs the Metropolitan Educational Training Alliance (META), a partnership among Chesterfield County Public Schools, Hanover County Public Schools, Henrico County Public Schools, Richmond City Public Schools, and VCU as well as the Greater Richmond Chamber of Commerce. She serves as principal investigator for the META Teacher Development and Retention Project, a $5.9 million federally funded effort to improve the preparation and retention of teachers in the metropolitan Richmond area.

Prior to joining VCU, Dr. Dozier served as senior advisor on teaching to former U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley. In this capacity, she served as the administration's top policy advisor on all teaching issues. Dr. Dozier also led the U.S. Department of Education's teaching initiative with primary responsibility for the development and implementation of a strategic plan to improve teacher recruitment, preparation, and ongoing professional development, including overall leadership in research, evaluation, and data collection on teacher quality.

While teaching world history at Irmo High School in Columbia, South Carolina, Dr. Dozier was named the 1985 National Teacher of the Year. She has 19 years of classroom teaching experience in settings as diverse as inner-city Miami, suburban South Carolina, and the Singapore American School.

Dr. Dozier earned an Ed.D. in curriculum and instruction from the University of South Carolina as well as a master's of education and a bachelor's degree in social studies education from the University of Florida.

Phoebe Gillespie, Ph.D.
Dr. Gillespie is the director of the Office of Special Education–funded National Center for Special Education Personnel and Related Service Providers at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education. She has more than 30 years of experience in the field of special education serving children, ages birth to 21, in a variety of settings. Dr. Gillespie has worked as a paraprofessional, infant home and classroom teacher, mental health facility education director, diagnostician, building-level administrator, and recruitment and retention outreach manager for the Council for Exceptional Children's Professions Clearinghouse. She holds a Ph.D. in educational policy, planning, and leadership from the College of William and Mary. She enjoys facilitating the design of effective plans for workforce development at the state and local levels.

Eric Hirsch
Eric Hirsch is executive director of the Center for Teaching Quality (CTQ, formerly the Southeast Center for Teaching Quality), a national organization that improves student learning by developing teacher leadership, conducting practical research, and engaging various communities. His work at CTQ has focused largely on better understanding and improving teacher working conditions. Prior to working at CTQ, Hirsch served as the executive director of the Colorado-focused Alliance for Quality Teaching and as education program manager at the National Conference of State Legislatures. He has worked with and testified to legislatures and policymakers across the country and presented at numerous conference about issues of teaching quality, school choice, and leadership. He has authored more than 30 articles, reports, book chapters, and policy briefs published by groups such as the National Conference of State Legislatures, the National Governors Association, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and the U.S. Department of Education. His work has appeared in Congressional Quarterly, the Journal of Special Education, and in the publications of the University of Pittsburgh Press. Hirsch received his teacher certification in Massachusetts and his master's degree from the University of Colorado.

Richard Ingersoll, Ph.D.
After teaching in both public and private schools for a number of years, Dr. Ingersoll earned a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1992. From 1995 to 2000, he was a faculty member in the sociology department at the University of Georgia and he currently is a professor of education and sociology at the University of Pennsylvania.

Dr. Ingersoll's research is concerned with the character of elementary and secondary schools as workplaces, teachers as employees, and teaching as a job. He has published numerous articles, reports, and pieces on the management and organization of schools; the problem of underqualified teachers; the debate about school accountability; the problems of teacher turnover and teacher shortages; the status of teaching as a profession; and the degree to which schools are centralized or decentralized and its impact on school performance.

His research is recognized nationally; was cited by President Clinton in a number of speeches announcing his teacher recruitment and training initiatives; influenced the No Child Left Behind Act; and has been featured in numerous major education reports, including those published by the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, The Education Trust, the Alliance for Excellence in Education, the National Governors Association, and the international Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Dr. Ingersoll has received a number of awards, including the Richard B. Russell Award for Excellence in Teaching from the University of Georgia; the Harry Braverman Award, from the Society for the Study of Social Problems, for his work on organizational control and accountability in schools; an American Educational Research Association fellowship, for which he served in residence at the National Center for Education Statistics; the 2004 National Award of Distinction from the Penn Education Alumni Association; and the 2004 Outstanding Writing Award from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education for his book, Who Controls Teachers' Work? Power and Accountability in America's Schools, published by Harvard University Press.

Dr. Ingersoll has conducted numerous briefings of local, state, and federal policymakers and has been invited to present his research before many groups, including the Congressional Hearings on Teacher Preparation Initiatives held by the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and the Workforce in 1998; the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, chaired by Senator John Glenn; the Science and the Congress Briefing in 2000; the 2001 Congressional Research Service's seminar for new members of Congress, sponsored by the U.S. House of Representatives; the Council of the City of New York; and state education reform commissions in many states.

Amy Jackson
Amy Jackson is deputy director of the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. She has a wide array of educational experiences and expertise in teacher quality program development and implementation as well as examination design.

Prior to her employment at Learning Point Associates, Jackson worked with the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) for eight years. As administrator of examinations, teacher development, and research, she directed teacher examination programs focused on basic skills (California Basic Educational Skills Test), subject-matter content (California Subject Examinations for Teachers), English language development (California Teacher of English Learners), reading instruction (Reading Instruction Competence Assessment), and performance assessment, including the California Teaching Performance Assessment and the California Formative Assessment and Support System for Teachers. In addition, she was responsible for the administration of several large-scale teacher development initiatives, including the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment program as well as the paraprofessional, preintern, and intern programs. Jackson also participated as a member of the senior management team for the CCTC executive director, providing guidance to policy development for teacher certification and license issues.

Before working at CCTC, Jackson was affiliated with WestEd in San Francisco. She provided regional technical assistance to state and local education agencies in Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington and developed classroom-based assessments for both students and teachers through the California Teaching Portfolio. She also worked on the development of a career and vocational performance assessment system for the California Department of Education.

Earlier in her career, Jackson worked at the Connecticut Department of Education's Division of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment where she developed student criterion-referenced exams and performance assessments such as the Connecticut Mastery Test and Common Core of Learning assessments. She also worked for the Virginia Department of Education, developing Standards of Learning for art and music. She began her career in education as a certified K–12 art teacher in Richmond, Virginia.

Jackson has completed the coursework for a doctorate in quantitative methodology from the University of California–Berkeley. She holds a master's degree in educational psychology and measurement from the University of Connecticut and a bachelor's of fine arts degree in visual and performing arts with a K–12 teaching credential from Virginia Commonwealth University.

Paul L. Kimmelman, Ed.D.
Dr. Kimmelman is a senior advisor in the office of the CEO at Learning Point Associates. He also has served as a consultant to the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority in England and senior consultant to Project 2061 Professional Development programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He worked in K–12 education for more than 30 years as a superintendent, assistant superintendent, middle school principal, high school assistant principal, and teacher and has been an adjunct professor at several colleges and universities. He also is working currently at Argosy University as an adjunct professor.

As superintendent in Lima, Ohio, Dr. Kimmelman worked to help the district successfully comply with a federal desegregation order. He served as president of the First in the World Consortium when he was a superintendent in Illinois. The consortium was a collaborative group of school districts that was the first noncountry group to participate in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The group was recognized by President Clinton and former U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley when they visited Illinois to announce their world-class successful work.

Dr. Kimmelman has authored numerous articles and publications on education and has presented at national and state education meetings. He is coauthor of the book, Achieving World-Class Schools: Mastering School Improvement Using a Genetic Model, released by Christopher-Gordon Publishing in 2002. His newest book, Implementing NCLB: Creating a Knowledge Framework to Support School Improvement, was released by Corwin Press in April 2006.

Dr. Kimmelman was appointed by Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley to the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching, which was chaired by former astronaut Senator John Glenn, and served on the TIMSS technical review panel. He also was appointed by U.S. Secretary of Education Rod Paige to serve on the Teacher Assistance Corps and is participating in the Teacher-to-Teacher project, offering sessions on building teacher leaders. He also serves as an advisory board member for the National Council on Teacher Quality.

Sabrina W. M. Laine, Ph.D.
Dr. Laine is a chief officer at Learning Point Associates and director of the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality . Dr. Laine has a diverse background in educational policy research and teacher quality and has spearheaded efforts to contribute to policy research and resource development related to issues of teacher quality and quantity. Her work includes several published studies on teacher supply and demand, teacher professional development, alternative certification, teacher recruitment and retention, and teacher turnover. As former chief officer for research and development at Learning Point Associates and acting director of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)—the regional educational laboratory (REL) serving the Midwest—Dr. Laine was responsible for a full-time staff of 45 and a $9 million annual budget. Her responsibilities also included managing state and federal contracts to conduct research and development on such topics as school reform, technology evaluation, data-driven decision making, and closing the achievement gaps. She is skilled in working closely and effectively with local, state, regional, and federal education agencies; sensitive to the challenges faced by educators in urban, rural, and low-performing schools; agile in establishing and sustaining collaborative relationships with other organizations; and efficient in managing both financial and human resources. Dr. Laine also is experienced in managing volunteer advisory boards and serving on advisory boards of national organizations, including the Education Commission of the States and the National Governors Association. Dr. Laine has worked for the last several years to ensure that policies and programs are in place that enable all children to have access to highly qualified teachers. She earned her doctorate in educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University and holds a master's degree in European law and economics from the University of Amsterdam.

Kawanda McLendon
McLendon, a recruitment specialist for the California Troops to Teachers Program and Teacher Recruitment and Support Center in San Diego, is a dedicated professional with experience in teacher recruitment, human resources management, and career counseling. Currently, she manages recruitment efforts and implements supportive services to help military service members transition into a second career in teaching, particularly in the areas of mathematics, science, special education, and bilingual education. She formed the San Diego Project, a partnership between the California Troops to Teachers Program and San Diego City Schools District, which recruits military personnel into an alternative certification program to fill teacher vacancies in high-need areas.

In addition to working with midcareer changers and military service members, she coordinates the Paraprofessional Training and Assessment Program, which is designed to assist paraprofessionals in becoming No Child Left Behind compliant and offer professional development to enhance their content knowledge and pedagogical skills. McLendon also facilitates trainings and conducts ongoing presentations at U.S. military bases, school districts, universities and colleges, teacher training institutions, and conferences to address teacher shortages in high-need subject areas.

Prior to joining the California Troops to Teachers program, she worked as a human resources representative at private sector organizations, such as Southwestern Bell Communications Corp. and Kraft Foods. In these assignments, she was responsible for professional recruitment of candidates and performed generalist duties, such as diversity training, employee relations, and new hire orientations.

She then worked for several years as the assistant director of career services at St. Mary's College of Maryland (SMCM). She provided career counseling and other career-related services to students, alumni, and community members. She also coordinated student teaching assignments for the students at SMCM.

Janice Hutchinson Poda, Ph.D.
Dr. Poda is the deputy superintendent of the Division of Educator Quality and Leadership at the South Carolina Department of Education. The division provides guidance and technical assistance to educators in the areas of preparation, certification, evaluation, and recognition as well as the implementation of Part II, A, of the No Child Left Behind Act. Prior to this position, Dr. Poda served for 10 years as the director of the South Carolina Center for Teacher Recruitment, now known as the Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention, and Advancement.

Janice also has served as the assistant superintendent for personnel in Greenwood, South Carolina. She has been a middle school social studies teacher and a high school special education teacher. She earned her bachelor's degree in social studies at the University of South Carolina; a master's degree in special education at the University of Georgia; and a Ph.D. at the University of South Carolina. Dr. Poda has received the Winthrop University Richard W. Riley College of Education's Award of Excellence for Educational Leadership as well as the "Distinguished Alumni" Award from the University of South Carolina College of Education.

Chris Reising
Reising currently is the director of the Southern California Teacher Recruitment and Support Center (SCTRSC) located in San Diego County.

Reising, who holds a K–8 elementary teaching credential and an administrative services credential, spent the first 10 years of his career in education as an elementary and middle school teacher at a highly diverse, inner-city magnet school in the San Diego Unified School District. He then worked for several years coordinating San Diego City Schools' Mentor Teacher Program and New Teacher Support Programs.

For the last nine years, Reising has worked as the cluster region director for California's statewide Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) induction program. In this regional role, he offers technical assistance to 86 Southern California school districts in the design, implementation, and maintenance of program evaluation and improvement activities. He has served on numerous state committees and task forces for the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing and the California Department of Education. Reising spearheaded California's effort to tailor the state's induction program to meet the unique needs of special educators. Currently he is leading statewide efforts to blend alternative certification (California's intern program) and BTSA induction support in California's two-tiered credential structure.

For the last three years, Reising has served as director of SCTRSC, which serves 86 Southern California school districts and offers services to teacher candidates, new teachers, experienced teachers, school districts, alternative certification programs, and university-based teacher preparation programs. The center's activities cover the entire teacher development spectrum, from recruitment, preparation, and certification to hiring, professional development, and retention. One of the center's current efforts is developing a K–12/Institutes of Higher Education (IHE) collaborative in the Southern California region. This effort is bringing together school district human resource directors, induction program directors, and IHE deans and faculty to address the challenges facing teachers, universities, and school districts today.

In addition, Reising currently serves as the lead consultant to San Diego County school districts and universities on the implementation of No Child Left Behind's highly qualified teacher requirements.

George Ann Rice, Ph.D.
Dr. Rice is associate superintendent of the Human Resources Division at the Clark County School District in Las Vegas. In this position, which she has held since 1991, Dr. Rice has districtwide responsibility for the recruitment, selection, placement, induction, and retention of more than 16,600 licensed teachers; 1,000 administrators; and 9,000 support staff employees. Dr. Rice is responsible for contract compliance, employee-management relations, and securing changes in Nevada law and Nevada administrative code related to employment and licensure issues. She is a former attorney as well as high school assistant principal, teacher, and department chair. In the last few years, Dr. Rice has served as one of three appointees of the governor on the Interim Legislative Committee on Higher Education; chaired the Nevada Task Force of the National Governors Association, Center for Best Practices, Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers; served as lead negotiator for Clark County School District negotiations with three unions, through which she was able to have three four-year labor contracts ratified before school began in 2003 using interest-based negotiating; participated in the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future Summit on the First Three Years of Teaching at the Johnson Foundation's Wingspread in September 2003; served as member of the Teachers' Council for Western Governors University; served as member of National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educators Board of Examiners, representing the National Association of Secondary School Principals; and served as a representative of K–12 education on National Association of Systems Head University Chancellors Work Group.

Patricia O'Connell Ross
Ross is the team leader for the Mathematics and Science Partnerships program at the U.S. Department of Education. In 15 years of federal service, she also managed the Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Program, the national Eisenhower mathematics and science programs, and the Fund for the Improvement of Education. Prior to joining the Department of Education, she served as associate director of Project 2061, a part of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; director of academic programs with the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University, a program serving more than 5,000 students in programs around the world; and as an education specialist with the Maine Department of Education. She received her undergraduate degree in anthropology from Beloit College, a master's of arts in teaching in museum education from George Washington University, and a master's in education in education policy from Harvard University.

Cortney Rowland
Cortney Rowland is a program associate at Learning Point Associates. She is part of the teacher and teaching quality team and serves as the coordinator of policy products and services for the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Rowland has a strong background in research, evaluation, and policy analysis. Much of her experience has been focused on at-risk students and the issue of teacher and teaching quality in at-risk schools. Her prior experience includes two years of evaluating state-funded education programs in Columbus, Ohio, where she primarily worked on a five-part evaluation of Ohio's charter schools. She also comanaged a study of Ohio's achievement gaps. Rowland earned her master's degree in sociology from Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, and is working on her doctoral degree in sociology at Loyola University–Chicago.

Ariela Rozman
Rozman is the vice president of Cohort Programs at The New Teacher Project. Before joining The New Teacher Project, she led the Online Marketing group for, which included managing the company's online new-customer acquisition strategy; media buying and creative agency relationships; and large partnerships with companies, such as AOL, Yahoo!, and iVillage. Prior to joining, Rozman worked as a special assistant to the CEO at Muresco, a retail and manufacturing conglomerate in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where she was responsible for rolling out a streamlined organizational process for the company and developing and implementing the corresponding learning modules. Rozman also has served as a consultant at Bain & Co., a leading strategy consulting firm, working with Fortune 500 companies to improve their overall growth strategies and revenue opportunities. She holds a bachelor's degree in political and social thought from the University of Virginia.

Rebecca Villarreal
As the community service program consultant for the National Retired Teacher's Association (NRTA): AARP's Educator Community, Villarreal manages outreach efforts by working with a nationwide network of community service chairs comprising retired educators and school personnel. Collectively, they focus on meeting the needs of local populations of all ages and finding new and inventive ways to recruit, motivate, and recognize volunteers for their service. In addition, she leads the With Our Youth! program and manages NRTA's Educator Support Network project in partnership with Chicago Public Schools and the Retired Teachers Association of Chicago.

Prior to NRTA, Villarreal managed the dissemination grants program at the AARP Andrus Foundation and worked at Ogilvy Public Relations where she was a member of the education group servicing clients such as the Job Shadow Day Coalition and the U.S. Department of Labor's National School-to-Work office. She formerly served a four-year term on the board of Teaching for Change. Featured in The Washington Post and the Chicago Tribune, Villarreal is a published poet and visual and performing artist who has appeared on stage and television. She also has taught creative writing workshops to public school teachers and children.

Vincent B. Watkins, J.D.
Vincent B. Watkins, is the founder and CEO of The Watkins Group, Inc., an Atlanta-based political strategy firm. Watkins has more than 25 years of experience working within political and corporate arenas. He specializes in the development and implementation of grass-roots community-based marketing campaigns targeting diverse populations. His success is related directly to his ability to empower others to access previously untapped consumer markets by using a language to which their target audience will respond positively.

Since 2002, Watkins has worked in the area of recruitment and retention in special education to train educational communities to develop, implement, and evaluate community-based recruitment campaigns to attract a more diverse population to careers in special education. Vincent tailors his training to the needs and contexts of diverse communities, using a comprehensive resource base and network of relationships. Watkins's work largely has been influenced by research on the impact of culturally and linguistically diverse teachers on the achievement of students from similar backgrounds.

He currently is engaged in developing and implementing statewide diversity recruitment campaigns for states and local school districts that are receiving services through the National Association of State Directors of Special Education's federally funded project, the National Center for Special Education Personnel and Related Service Providers.




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Hirsch, E. (2006). Recruiting and retaining teachers in Mobile, Alabama: Educators on what it will take to staff all classrooms with quality teachers . (PDF 586 KB) Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Teaching Quality.

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Tyler, N., Yzquierdo, Z., Lopez-Reyna, N, & Flippin, S. (2002). Diversifying the special education workforce. (PDF 409 KB) Gainesville, FL: Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.


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Special Education

Billingsley, B. S. (1993). Teacher retention and attrition in special and general education: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Special Education, 27(2), 137–174.

Billingsley, B. S., & McLeskey, J. (2004). Critical issues in special education teacher supply and demand: Overview. Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 2–4.

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Tyler, N., Yzquierdo, Z., Lopez-Reyna, N., & Flippin, S. (2002). Diversifying the special education workforce (COPSSE Document No. RS-3). Gainesville, FL: Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education. Retrieved May 12, 2006,

Mathematics and Science

Davis, M. R. (2006, February 8). Bush proposes math and science initiatives. Education Week, 25(22), 22, 26. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from 22bush.h25.html?qs=math+and+science&levelId=1000

Gafney, L., & Weiner, M. (1995). Finding future teachers from among undergraduate science and mathematics majors. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 637–640.

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Ingersoll, R. M. (2006). Understanding supply and demand among mathematics and science teachers. In J. Roton & P. Shane (Eds.), Teaching science in the 21st century (pp. 197–211). Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association Press.

Klein, A. (2006, April 12). Spellings leads review of math, science ed. programs. Education Week, 25(31), 30, 32. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from 31compete.h25.html?qs=math+and+science&levelId=1000

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Zinth, K., & Dounay, J. (2006). Mathematics and science education in the states (StateNotes: Mathematics and Science). Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from page=

Combined Special Education and Mathematics and Science

Brown, A. R. (2006, February 10). A career after the navy: Troops to Teacher program proves successful for retired sailor. Navy Compass. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from

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Gaines, G. F. (2002). Focus on retired teachers: State policies allowing retirees to return to classrooms. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from

Guarino, C., Santibañez, L., Daley, G., & Brewer, D. (2004). A review of the research literature on teacher recruitment and retention (Technical Report TR-164-EDU). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR164.pdf

Hammer, P. C., Hughes, G., McClure, C., Reeves, C., & Salgado, D. (2005). Rural teacher recruitment and retention practices: A review of the research literature, national survey of rural superintendents, and case studies of programs in Virginia. Charleston, WV: Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from

Harmon, H. L. (2001, March). Attracting and retaining teachers in rural areas. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Dallas, TX. (Eric Document No. ED455081). Retrieved May 12, 2006, from content_storage_01/0000000b/80/26/5e/ef.pdf

Hirsch, E. (2006). Recruiting and retaining teachers in Mobile, Alabama: Educators on what it will take to staff all classrooms with quality teachers. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Teaching Quality. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from /docs/atrisk/resources/RecruitingandRetainingTeachers.pdf

Hussar, W. J. (1999). Predicting the need for newly hired teachers in the United States to 2008–09. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from

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