From Planning to Action: Effectively Using Your Professional Development Resources
March 13–14, 2008
Ritz-Carlton, Pentagon City,
The National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality hosted an invitational issue forum for the regional comprehensive centers and state education agencies in Arlington, Virginia, March 13–14, 2008. The forum directly followed, and partially overlapped, the U.S. Department of Education’s ESEA Title II Conference. The sessions focused on such topics as professional development for Gen Y teachers for special student populations, professional development standards, and putting professional development research and policy into action.
Summary: Day 1
Joint Session Between the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title II National Conference
Introducing the Doing What Works Website: A New Resource for Moving Research to Practice
The National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality Issue Forum began with a joint session that was planned in collaboration with the ESEA Title II Conference. Jennifer Ballen Richards, management and program analyst for the Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, U.S. Department of Education, led the session by introducing the new Doing What Works website.
The Institute for Educational Sciences (IES) developed this online resource, available at http://www.dww.ed.gov/ , out of a growing need to translate research-based practices into tangible professional development tools that teachers can use to improve classroom instruction. The What Works Clearinghouse researched and drafted evidence-based practices reports about several classroom instruction topics before posting effective strategies online. Currently, the website houses information on teaching reading to English language learners (ELL) and will soon include preschool language/literacy, encouraging girls in math and science, and a host of other topics.
All information is organized into three sections: learn what works, see how it works, and do what works. Downloadable data include interviews, presentations, and video recordings of real teachers, coaches, and principals engaging in effective classroom instruction practices. The IES received positive feedback from several pilot focus groups that assessed the benefits of the Doing What Works website. The U.S. Department of Education encourages schools, districts, and state leaders to visit http://www.dww.ed.gov/ and provide feedback. For more information on this online tool, please e-mail email@example.com .
Using Your Professional Development Resources to Build Local Capacity: A Look at the History and Future of Title IIA
This presentation, moderated by Sabrina Laine, Ph.D., from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, reviewed Title IIA of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and discussed methods for using professional development resources to build local professional development capacity.
Rene Islas, from B&D Consulting, expressed that there is no clear definition of professional development and shared the following findings of NCLB's Title IIA since January 2002:
- States allocated 58 percent of Title IIA funds to class size reduction, which remains a predominant expenditure for Title IIA. Also, states spent 25 percent of Title II funds on professional development, and the remaining funds were distributed to reform issues such as certification and licensure and principal professional development.
- There were no differences in the types of Title IIA expenditures between high- and low-poverty schools.
Islas further stated that one third of professional development is not aligned to state, district, or school needs. He contends that NCLB is not targeting the needs of teacher quality; thus, the the law has not fulfilled its promise to teachers.
Seth Gerson, J.D., legislative assistant for the Office of Senator Jack Reed (RI), mentioned a report by the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future citing a $7.3 billion teacher turnover rate, with the greatest teacher attrition among high-poverty schools. Senator Reed is working to include SB 1979 into the reauthorization of NCLB. Reed wants to implement a professional learning community in each school to advance the professional development of teachers and ensure a high-quality teacher in every classroom.
Targeting Support and Professional Development for Gen Y Teachers
Gretchen Weber, from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, facilitated this session about enhancing teacher support and professional development to increase recruitment and retention of Gen Y teachers. In a collaborative survey between the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Public Agenda, Sabrina Laine, Ph.D., from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, revealed the following Gen Y findings:
- Education is competing with other fields in attracting a new generation of graduating students.
- Gen Y teachers desire the freedom to innovate, support from effective leaders, and professional development.
- Professional development should be sustained, job-embedded, reflective, and focused on innovation and small group collaboration in order to be helpful for new teachers.
Currently, 30 percent of new education graduates do not start careers in teaching; 15 percent of new teachers leave the profession every year. Ed Wilgus, professional development manager for the Vancouver School District, shared that Vancouver Public Schools focuses on Human Resources Management (HRM) to improve recruitment and retention numbers of new teachers. HRM solutions strive to shape the organizational culture of education systems by advancing the day-to-day human resources functions.
Professional Development in Practice—Addressing the Needs of Special Student Populations
Bradley Scott, Ph.D., from The South Central Collaborative for Equity, Intercultural Development Research Association, facilitated this session with the overall goal of sharing professional development methods for improving the training of teachers who feel ill prepared to teach ELL and students with special needs. Presenters Heidi A. Ramirez, Ph.D., from Temple University, and Deborah L. Voltz, Ed.D., from the University of Alabama at Birmingham, provided two examples of how university-school partnerships addressed such issues.
Specifically, Temple University altered their teacher training program through university–school partnerships where cohorts travel through the preparation programs. The collaborative project increased teacher longevity by providing increased opportunities to practice with real students and to observe needed teacher competencies. Project SMILE, at the University of Alabama, created a professional development training program in which university staff worked with a specific school district to improve their knowledge of including students with disabilities in the general education classroom. This effort improved teachers' perception and knowledge of improving instruction for ELL and students with special needs.
Overall, the session determined that more work is needed in providing professional development to teachers with inadequate hands-on experience in serving the needs of special student populations. Both presenters emphasized the need for a reciprocal relationship between the university and school staff where trust and flexibility are practiced in the planning and implementation of such initiatives.
Professional Development Partnerships and Standards
Katherine Bassett, from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and ETS, facilitated this session in which participants discussed the development, implementation, and assessment of professional development in schools. Hot topics involving the cultivation, implementation, and evaluation of professional development included the following:
- School districts' inability to facilitate staff agreement on professional development needs
- Lack of time for staff to implement and evaluate professional development activities
The group determined that professional development is oftentimes inconsistent because of scarce school focus. Stephanie Hirsch, Ph.D., from the National Staff Development Council (NSDC), stated that obtaining school staff buy-in and employing professional learning communities enhances professional development to include needs-based and job-embedded professional development plans. Marsha Levine, from the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), called for more uniformity to standards for teacher preparation, training, and professional development. Levine considered teacher preparation and development as an ongoing process.
The New Jersey Professional Development Model, outlined by Peggy Stewart, from the New Jersey Professional Standards Board, requires that all teachers accrue 100 hours of professional development every 5 years. The model aims to improve student achievement by making sure every teacher takes part in day-to-day professional development, yet there is no proof showing a connection between the two. The NSDC is drafting text to tie professional development to student learning. Currently, the NSDC offers innovation configurations to evaluate professional development efforts within schools.
Professional Development: Research and Policy into Action
Ellen Behrstock, from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, moderated this session, which focused on how to transition professional development research and policy into effective professional development practices. Presenters Rene Islas, from B&D Consulting, and Joyce Lieberman, Ed.D., from Learning Point Associates, discussed how professional development initiatives often are not aligned with standards or with the needs of the school in mind. As a result, implemented professional development can be fragmented and not fully supported, which may negatively affect student learning and teacher retention.
Islas and Lieberman suggested aligning professional development standards with school improvement plans to identify what professional development is needed. Specific examples included the following:
- Conduct a needs assessment to streamline larger goals and identify local experts in the field who can help (i.e., graduate students or professors in the field).
- Align professional development programs with the NSDC's Standards for Staff Development.
- Review professional development initiatives, based on systematic data collection, to evaluate what works and what should be changed as well as the effect they are having on schools, teachers, and students.
Gary Appel, from Great Lakes East Comprehensive Center and Learning Point Associates, concentrated on lesson study, which observes teaching instruction as a method of advancing professional learning. Appel asserted how lesson study investigates educator challenges within the classroom, fosters teacher know-how, and cultivates professional alliances—all essential aspects for enhancing professional development.
Effective Professional Development Partnerships: Yale-New Haven Institute
This presentation, moderated by Paul L. Kimmelman, Ed.D, from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, focused on the use of district–university partnerships to address teacher quality and teacher professional development. Rogers M. Smith, Ph.D., from the University of Pennsylvania, explained how the Yale–New Haven Teachers Institute approach utilizes district–university partnerships to provide content-specific seminars to teachers via teaching institutes. University professors with content expertise lead the seminars, offered to teachers from several content areas and grade levels, with the goal of improving teacher quality and professional development. Teachers then adapt seminar themes to write and teach curriculum units designed to meet district standards. Sara E. Thomas, a New Haven School District teacher, explained how the Yale-New Haven Teachers Initiative helped her make important career connections with fellow colleagues while improving her arts curriculum.
In fact, most teachers in the program prefer the Teachers Institute approach over more traditional types of professional development offered by their schools and districts. The Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute was established in 1978 and currently operates the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute and coordinates the League of Teachers Institutes that includes the Pittsburgh Teachers Institute, Houston Teachers Institute, and Teachers Institute of Philadelphia. Through the Yale National Initiative to strengthen teaching in public schools it is working to create exemplary new institutes in most states to demonstrate and spread its innovative approach to improving teacher quality. State education agencies interested in this kind of model can find more information at http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/ and can also read about the impact, lessons, and future prospects for the model. Potential benefits to a state education agenda include creating stronger relationships between school districts and institutes of higher education, providing avenues of professional development that further teachers' content knowledge, and bolstering opportunities for teacher leadership.
Summary: Day 2
Lessons Learned: Effective Professional Development Spending
Federal revenue plays a significant role in funding professional development for teachers, whereas state, local, and private sources contribute up to 25 percent to districts' operating budget for professional development initiatives. Although districts invest significantly in professional development for teachers, they are not effectively leveraging those resources to develop teacher quality. Regis Anne Shields, J.D., from Education Resource Strategies, discussed effective professional development spending and suggested how districts can better leverage resources to develop teacher quality.
Key issues regarding current professional development spending for teachers are as follows:
- Districts typically spend more on school-based professional development than on the individual professional growth of teachers.
- Resources spent on individual professional development tend to focus solely on teacher training.
Districts should focus resources on individual professional development targeted at recertification and leadership development rather than spend the bulk of revenue during teacher induction. Implementing a teacher coaching model where coaches are rigorously selected and equally distributed across schools best aids the continual professional development of teachers. Laura Goe, Ph.D., from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and ETS, moderated this presentation.
Targeting Support and Professional Development for Gen Y Teachers
This session, facilitated by Gretchen Weber, from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, emphasized the importance of understanding the needs of Gen Y teachers so that the teaching profession can adequately recruit and retain this new crop of talent. Sabrina Laine, Ph.D., from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, shared several Gen Y findings from a joint survey between the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Public Agenda.
The findings revealed that Gen Y teacher characteristics are incompatible with the current education system. This generation wants administrative support and feedback as well as opportunities to innovate and grow professionally while contributing to leadership. Many teachers decide to leave the profession, while others do not enter the profession after college because the education system does not appeal to their professional development needs.
Ed Wilgus, professional development manager for the Vancouver School District, shared how Gen Y teachers want to be part of an organizational culture where the HRM system integrates recruitment, induction, mentoring, career growth, and evaluation. Vancouver Public Schools uses these HRM solutions to improve the recruitment and retention numbers of new teachers.
The discussion concluded with a professional development model for change that includes integrated teacher standards (certification requirements, curriculum, and professional growth), principal support, and mentorship to effectively attract and keep Gen Y teachers.
Professional Development in Practice: Addressing the Needs of Special Student Populations
This discussion addressed how many teachers feel underprepared to teach ELL and students with disabilities and presented professional development strategies for improving teacher training in these areas. The following examples, presented by Deborah L. Voltz, Ed.D., from the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Heidi A. Ramirez, Ph.D., from Temple University, illustrate how university–school partnerships work to resolve such professional development issues:
- Project SMILE, at the University of Alabama, created a professional development training program whereby university staff helped a specific school district advance their education acumen of including students with disabilities in the general education classroom. This endeavor improved teachers' awareness and knowledge of improving instruction for ELL and students with special needs.
- Temple University used university–school partnerships to improve their teacher training program, which increased teacher retention by providing more opportunities to practice with ELL and students with disabilities.
Moderated by Bradley Scott, Ph.D., from The South Central Collaborative for Equity, Intercultural Development Research Association, group participants determined that more professional development training is needed for teachers with insufficient real-life experience in educating special student populations. Presenters stressed a call for a shared relationship between school staffs and universities where trust and flexibility are applied in the design and execution of professional development plans for serving students with disabilities and ELL.
Professional Development Partnerships and Standards
Many school districts struggle to determine a clear consensus on professional development needs and means to evaluate professional development success. As a result, professional development can be sporadic, with no clear vision within schools. This session offered strategies, based on NCATE standards, to assess current needs, discuss professional development opportunities, and evaluate progress.
Katherine Bassett, from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and ETS, moderated this session where Marsha Levine, from NCATE, asserted a need for more coherence to standards for teacher preparation, induction, and professional development. Levine viewed teacher preparation and development as a continuum, yet group participants shared how school staffs often view time as the biggest barrier to implementing professional development. Nevertheless, staffs are willing to work harder and longer hours if their efforts are valued.
Professional development strategies, outlined by Stephanie Hirsch, Ph.D., from NSDC, included the following:
- Use trust, training, and patience to gain buy-in and consensus regarding professional development priorities among school staff.
- Utilize professional learning communities to develop fluid professional development plans that are needs based and job embedded.
Peggy Stewart, from the New Jersey Professional Standards Board, highlighted the New Jersey Professional Development Model, which ensures that every teacher engages in daily professional development to help propel student achievement. However, there is no clear evidence that shows a connection between student achievement and professional development. NSDC created innovation configurations to assess professional development efforts within schools and is currently developing a document to link professional development to student learning.
Professional Development: Research and Policy into Action
This discussion, facilitated by Ellen Behrstock from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Learning Point Associates, centered on creating helpful professional development practices from professional development research and policy. Presenters Joyce Lieberman, Ed.D., from Learning Point Associates, and Sydnee Dixon, Director of Educator Quality and Licensing at the Utah State Office of Education, expressed the need to parallel professional development standards and initiatives for a positive impact on teacher retention and student learning.
Gary Appel, from Great Lakes East Comprehensive Center and Learning Point Associates, focused on lesson study as a means to further professional learning through examining teaching instruction. According to Appel, lesson study explores real challenges teachers face in classrooms, builds teacher knowledge, and supports professional collaboration—all of which are critical to furthering professional development.
The overall consensus concluded that professional development needs are accurately determined when school improvement plans align with professional development standards. Conducting a needs assessment, matching professional development programs with NSDC standards, and utilizing systemic data collection to review professional development initiatives are essential for establishing effective professional development practices.
Professional Development State Policy Panel
Tricia Coulter, Ph.D., from the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality and Education Commission of the States, moderated this presentation, which addressed the design and delivery of professional development in Hawaii, New York, and Iowa.
Hawaii's professional development approach, explained by Robert Campbell, Ph.D., from the Hawaii Department of Education, uses Title II funds and collaborates with higher education institutes to provide professional development courses for teachers. The courses are aligned with highly qualified teacher requirements and teachers can track their highly qualified teacher status, professional development credits, and professional development course offerings through Hawaii's online professional development database.
Alysan Slighter, from the New York Department of Education, described how New York has 130 statewide teacher centers where planning committees establish and provide professional development activities such as college courses, mentoring/coaching, workshops, conferences, and professional study groups. Topics include technology, school community initiatives, state and national initiatives, curriculum development, professional support, and special populations. Rosemary B. Harrigan, from the Greater Capital Region Teacher Center, discussed how the teacher centers work with professional development planning teams. These teams, which are required by New York State regulation, are effective because they are voluntary, teacher driven, and supported by the state legislature. Harrigan emphasized that systematic professional development change for teachers only will occur if administrators and teachers agree on a professional development approach.
The Iowa professional development model, presented by Marietta Rives, from the Iowa Department of Education, focuses on improving student learning by mandating that districts develop and submit career development plans as a part of its Comprehensive School Improvement Plan. Districts are expected to collect and analyze student data, set learning goals, select professional development content, offer professional development training, and evaluate outcomes based on statewide professional development standards.
Transforming Culture Through Professional Collaboration: From a State Initiative to a School-Based Practice (PDF 700 KB)
Peggy Stuart, NSDC
Yale National Initiative to Strengthen Teaching in Public Schools (PDF 2.1 MB)
Rogers Smith, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania
NYS Teacher Centers (PDF 172 KB)
Rosemary B. Harrigan, Greater Capital Region Teacher Center
Professional Development: Research and Policy Into Action (PDF 156 KB)
Joyce Lieberman, Ed.D., Learning Point Associates
PDS Pathways: The Preparation and Induction of New Teachers in Learning Communities (PDF 48 KB)
Marsha Levine, National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
Project Smile: The Standards Movement and the Inclusion of Learners with Exceptionalities (PDF 96 KB)
Deborah L. Voltz, Ed.D., Center for Urban Education
Meeting the Teacher Quality Challenge: Rethinking How Districts "DO" Professional Development (PDF 620 KB)
Education Resource Strategies (ERS)
Teacher Quality: Professional Development for Gen Y (PDF 316 KB)
Sabrina Laine, Ph.D., Learning Point Associates
PD Policies and Title II (PDF 296 KB)
Robert Campbell, Ph.D., Hawaii Department of Education
David E. Axner, Ed.D.
David E. Axner, Ed.D., is superintendent of Dublin City Schools in Ohio. Previously, Dr. Axner served as superintendent and assistant superintendent with the Chagrin Falls Exempted Village School District. He also has prior experience as a high school principal and middle school principal with that district. Previously, he served as an assistant principal, athletic director, special education teacher, and coach with the Sandusky City Schools. Professional involvement for Dr. Axner includes the Ohio Educators Standards Board; Franklin County Superintendents Association; Ohio Schools Council; Buckeye Association of School Administrators; Ohio School Boards Association; American Association of School Administrators; and the Ohio Association of Local School Superintendents. In addition, he serves on a number of committees for the Ohio Department of Education and the Buckeye Association of School Administrators. Dr. Axner is an Ohio School Leadership Institute participant and a member of the following organizations: Alliance for Adequate School Funding; Dublin Counseling Center Board; Dublin Chamber of Commerce Board; Dublin Rotarian; and Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Dr. Axner earned his master's and doctoral degrees from the University of Akron.
Carolyn Brown, Ph.D.
Carolyn Brown, Ph.D., is a senior research associate for The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement at Learning Point Associates. Dr. Brown has provided technical assistance for schools in New York and South Carolina and consultation to the ACLU on education issues. With more than 20 years of experience in education, she brings a breadth of knowledge of the field along with her qualitative and quantitative research skills. Prior to joining Learning Point Associates, she was a university professor, conducting research and teaching in graduate education programs. She has expertise in school management and policy implementation. Her background includes a study of school management decentralization in six urban districts and a quantitative analysis of Title I funds distribution in New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Dr. Brown taught English and social studies in Grades 6–12 and special education in Grades 1–12. She has been a school administrator in both public and private schools and has consulted on curriculum and instruction in the United States and abroad. Dr. Brown earned her Ph.D. from the University of California–Los Angeles.
Kim Burke is a teacher at Nalle Elementary School in Washington, D.C. Burke's teaching career began as a science resource teacher at Harriet Tubman Elementary School in Columbia Heights where she taught Grades K–6 for five years. She was a key member on the Co-Nect Design team, a model that served to reform elementary education. Burke also served as a mentor teacher at Carnegie Academy for Science Education to improve the science and mathematics instruction in the District of Columbia public schools. Burke along with colleague John Mahoney coauthored a national winning epidemiology curriculum, which linked the disciplines of AP statistics and AP biology. She was one of the first recipients in the District of Columbia to receive the distinguished Milken Family Foundation National Educator Award. Burke also was featured on JC Hayward and Friends, was a recipient of the Abe Pollin Award for Outstanding Community Service, and was a U.S. Department of Agriculture fellow to Ghana.
Lewis Chappelear is an engineering and design high school teacher, who cofounded the School of Engineering and Design at James Monroe High School in the Los Angeles Unified School District. He also cofounded the San Fernando Valley Aviation Aerospace Collaborative, which includes more than 40 local companies and community organizations that provide internships, guest speakers, and company tours for his students. He was named 2008 California Teacher of the Year and 2008 National Teacher of the Year Finalist. Chappelear earned his M.S. in mechanical engineering from Columbia University.
David Cleary is the staff director for U.S. Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN) on the Subcommittee on Children and Families of the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. Cleary is the principal education advisor to Senator Alexander and was primarily responsible for advising the senator on the recently reauthorized Higher Education Act. Cleary also advises Senator Alexander on elementary and secondary education issues, including the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, and special education issues. Previously, Cleary served for a short time with the Aspen Institute's Commission on No Child Left Behind as the director of policy and research. Prior to accepting that position, Cleary worked for the House Education and Workforce Committee for Chairman John Boehner (R-OH) on disability policy. Cleary was the lead Republican staffer during the recent reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. Cleary also worked at the U.S. Department of Education for several years.
Celine Coggins, Ph.D.
Celine Coggins, Ph.D., directs the teaching policy fellows program at the Rennie Center for Education Research and Policy, which trains exceptional early-career teachers to become advocates for their generation in the profession. Her background includes policy, research, and K–12 teaching. She also has led several consulting projects with large urban districts seeking to differentiate roles and pay for teachers. Formerly research director of the Rennie Center, Dr. Coggins led the research and publication process for reports, briefs, journal articles, and books. In addition, she worked in the Office of the Commissioner at the Massachusetts Department of Education on an array of teacher quality initiatives. Dr. Coggins began her career as a middle school teacher in Worcester, Massachusetts. She earned her M.Ed. in educational research, measurement, and evaluation from Boston College and her Ph.D. in education policy analysis from Stanford University, where she studied teacher quality and education leadership.
Pamela Coleman is the director of the Teacher Education and Licensure division at the Kansas Department of Education in Topeka, Kansas. Teacher Education and Licensure is responsible for the issuance of all levels of educator/leadership licenses for both traditional and restrictive pathways, accrediting teacher education units, and program review for all teacher preparation units across the state. She is currently cochairing the Teaching in Kansas Commission. Coleman has a comprehensive background in leadership at the school-based level as well as the higher education arena. She has lectured both nationally and internationally and published several articles on teacher preparation and instructional strategies. Her experiences include grant writing at the national and state level on program design, state curriculum, and assessment writing.
Tricia Coulter, Ph.D.
Tricia Coulter, Ph.D., is the deputy director of the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality (TQ Center) at Learning Point Associates. In this role, she is responsible for coordinating the TQ Center's work to build the capacity of regional comprehensive centers and states in implementing the highly qualified teacher requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. Prior to assuming this position, she was the director of the Teaching Quality and Leadership Institute at the Education Commission of the States, where she created and managed the scope of work related to the preparation, support, and compensation of quality teachers and leaders. Dr. Coulter also has worked as a senior research analyst at the State Higher Education Executive Officers organization where she developed experience and expertise in issues of teacher preparation and professional development. Dr. Coulter has extensive experience analyzing policy and research and using this information to help states in their efforts to create quality policy and innovative practice in response to their own teacher quality and leadership related needs and challenges. She also has worked directly with states and districts in their work with federal reporting requirements and their efforts to ensure that all students are served by highly qualified teachers. Dr. Coulter earned her Ph.D. in counseling and educational psychology, specializing in consultation from the University of Nevada–Reno.
Charlotte Danielson is a former economist and an educational consultant based in Princeton, New Jersey. She has taught at all levels, from kindergarten through college, and has worked as administrator, curriculum director, and staff developer. In her consulting work, Danielson has specialized in aspects of teacher quality and evaluation, curriculum planning, performance assessment, and professional development. Danielson has worked as a teacher and administrator in school districts in several regions of the United States. In addition, she has served as a consultant to hundreds of districts, universities, intermediate agencies, and state departments of education in virtually every state and in many other countries. This work has ranged from the training of practitioners in aspects of instruction and assessment and the design of instruments and procedures for teacher evaluation to keynote presentations at major conferences. Clients for the development of materials and training programs include the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), the College Board, Educational Testing Service, the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, and the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Danielson is the author of a number of books supporting teachers and administrators. These include Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching (1996, 2007), Teacher Evaluation to Enhance Professional Practice (in collaboration with Tom McGreal) (2000), Enhancing Student Achievement: A Framework for School Improvement (2002), and Strengthening the Profession Through Teacher Leadership (2006), published by ASCD. In addition, she has written several Collections of Performance Tasks and Rubrics, published by Eye on Education. Danielson holds advanced degrees in philosophy, economics, and educational administration from Oxford University and Rutgers University.
Terry Dozier, Ed.D.
Terry Dozier, Ed.D., is the director of the Center for Teacher Leadership at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Education where she serves as National Teacher in Residence and associate professor in the School of Education. Dr. Dozier also chairs the Metropolitan Educational Training Alliance (META) and conducts the META National Board Certification Candidate Support Program. She serves as principal investigator for the META Teacher Development and Retention Project and coprincipal investigator for Project ALL: Authentic Learning for Leaders, a federally funded effort to prepare teacher leaders to become assistant principals and principals in high-needs schools, using case study and simulation methodology. Prior to joining VCU, Dr. Dozier served as senior advisor on teaching to former U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley. In this capacity, she served as the Clinton administration's top policy advisor on all teaching issues. Dr. Dozier also led the U.S. Department of Education teaching initiative with primary responsibility for the development and implementation of a strategic plan to improve teacher recruitment, preparation, and ongoing professional development, including overall leadership in research, evaluation, and data collection on teacher quality. While teaching world history at Irmo High School in Columbia, South Carolina, Dr. Dozier was named the 1985 National Teacher of the Year and has 19 years of classroom teaching experience in settings as diverse as inner-city Miami, suburban South Carolina, and the Singapore American School. Dr. Dozier earned her M.Ed. in social studies education from the University of Florida and her Ed.D. in curriculum and instruction from the University of South Carolina.
Francis "Skip" Fennell, Ph.D.
Francis "Skip" Fennell, Ph.D., is a professor of education at McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland, and past president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Dr. Fennell is a mathematics educator and has experience as a classroom teacher, principal, and supervisor of instruction. Widely published in professional journals and textbooks related to elementary and middle-grade mathematics education, Dr. Fennell also has authored chapters in NCTM yearbooks and resource books. In addition, he has played key leadership roles with the Research Council for Mathematics Learning, the National Science Foundation, the United States National Commission for Mathematics Instruction, and the Association for Mathematics Teacher Educators. He was on the writing teams for the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) and the Curriculum Focal Points (NCTM, 2006). Dr. Fennell has served as a member of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel and has received numerous honors and awards. In addition, he has been the principal investigator for grants from the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Education, the Maryland Higher Education Commission, and the ExxonMobil Foundation. He earned his Ph.D. from The Pennsylvania State University.
Maria Fenwick is a fourth grade teacher at the Ralph Waldo Emerson Elementary School in Boston Public Schools. In addition to working with students, Fenwick enjoys leadership activities outside the classroom. She is the head of her school's data team, a member of the instructional leadership team, and an active participant in school policy and management decisions. Fenwick is currently working with the Boston Plan for Excellence to develop a teacher network for Boston teachers. Fenwick holds master's degrees in education policy from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and elementary education from the Boston Teacher Residency.
Patricia Fleming joined the Mid-Continent Comprehensive Center in July 2006. Previously, Fleming worked at WestEd as a research associate in the Arizona office of the Southwest Comprehensive Center. Her responsibilities included providing consultation and technical assistance services to the state department of education, districts, and schools in the areas of school improvement, literacy, data analysis, and leadership capacity. Prior to joining WestEd, Fleming worked at the Arizona Department of Education assisting Title I schools in program implementation and school improvement, coordinating a federal grant titled Comprehensive School Reform (Title I Part F), and also assisting in the development of a process for Title I schools identified for school improvement. She also worked as an elementary classroom teacher for nine years prior to working at the state level. Fleming earned her M.Ed. in educational leadership from Northern Arizona University.
Janet Gless is associate director of The New Teacher Center at the University of California–Santa Cruz, where she assists policymakers, educational organizations, administrators, and teacher leaders with the design and implementation of teacher induction programs. Gless has more than 25 years of experience as a classroom teacher, mentor to new teachers, induction program coordinator, and staff developer. As a visiting educator with the California Department of Education, Gless worked with mentor teachers and consulted to induction programs throughout the state. She collaborated in the design and dissemination of a number of statewide trainings for mentors and program coordinators. Gless helped found The New Teacher Center in 1998. She serves as a consultant to policymakers and preservice and induction program leaders throughout the country in the area of beginning teacher support and assessment. Gless also presents regularly at national and statewide conferences on teacher development, induction, formative assessment, professional standards, and mentoring. She has authored book chapters, articles, and trainings on various topics related to new teacher induction, mentoring, and teacher leadership.
Lawrence Gloeckler is the executive director of the Special Education Institute at the International Center for Leadership in Education. He works with state education agencies, universities, and local school districts throughout the country on strategies to improve performance for students with disabilities. He also speaks about these issues at national and regional meetings of school district personnel and educational organizations. In addition, he works with schools and districts on strategic initiatives and the analysis of special education data to assist districts in improving performance for these students. Prior to joining the Special Education Institute, Gloeckler served as deputy commissioner for the New York State Education Department. Gloeckler began his career in education as a teacher of students with developmental disabilities. He also was a special education coordinator at the local level. He serves as a member of the Technical Advisory Board of the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities and on the Professional Advisory Board to the National Center for Learning Disabilities in New York City. In addition, he has served as a policy consultant to the National Center on Special Education Accountability and Monitoring at Louisiana State University and is on the Board of the National Center on Post-Secondary Outcomes at the University of Oregon. In addition, he served on the Critical Issues Committee for the state departments of education in Maryland and California.
Laura Goe, Ph.D.
Laura Goe, Ph.D., is research scientist in the Teaching and Learning Research Center at ETS and is the principal investigator for research and dissemination for the TQ Center. Previously, Dr. Goe was the research director for the Bay Area Consortium for Urban Education at the University of California–Berkeley, where she worked with representatives from school districts as well as colleges and universities in an effort to improve teacher recruitment, preparation, and retention in the Bay Area. She also worked extensively on issues of school finance, accountability, and teacher credentialing and distribution in California. Dr. Goe earned her master's degree from the University of Memphis Education Leadership and Policy Program and her doctorate from the University of California–Berkeley Policy, Organizations, Measurement, and Evaluation Program.
Gabriella Gomez is a senior education policy advisor with the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor. She works for the Office of Congressman George Miller (D-CA). Her portfolio includes higher education and innovation. Most recently she was an assistant director with the American Federation of Teachers, covering higher education and competitive/innovation issues. Gomez's other experience includes working for Representative Ciro Rodriguez of San Antonio, Texas, as well as fellowships with the Senate Education Committee and the House of Commons in England. Gomez earned her master's degree in education policy from Harvard University.
Socorro Herrera serves as a professor of elementary education at Kansas State University and directs the Center for Intercultural and Multilingual Advocacy in the College of Education. Her K–12 teaching experience includes an emphasis on literacy development. Her research focuses on literacy opportunities with culturally and linguistically diverse children, reading strategies, and teacher preparation for diversity in the classroom. Dr. Herrera has recently published two books with Allyn and Bacon, Mastering ESL and Bilingual Methods: Differentiated Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (2005) and Assessment Accommodations for Classroom Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (2007). A third book titled Differentiated Literacies: Contextualizing Reading and Writing for the Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Student, written with Dr. Kathy Escamilla and Dr. Della Pérez, will be released in 2008.
Paul Kimmelman, Ed.D.
Paul Kimmelman, Ed.D, is senior advisor in the office of the CEO at Learning Point Associates He has served as consultant to the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority in England and senior consultant to Project 2061 Professional Development Programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He worked in K–12 education for more than 30 years as a teacher, assistant high school principal, middle school principal, assistant superintendent, superintendent, and adjunct professor at several colleges and universities. In addition to his position at Learning Point Associates, he works at Argosy University as program coordinator for Organizational Leadership in the College of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. As superintendent in Lima, Ohio, he worked to help the district successfully comply with a federal desegregation order. He served as president of the First in the World Consortium when he was a superintendent in Illinois. Dr. Kimmelman has authored numerous articles and publications on education and presented at national and state education meetings. He was appointed by former U.S. Secretary of Education Richard Riley to the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century chaired by former Senator and astronaut John Glenn and served on the TIMSS Technical Review Panel. He also was appointed by U.S. Secretary of Education Rod Paige to serve on the Teacher Assistance Corps and participated in the Teacher to Teacher project offering sessions on Building Teacher Leaders. Dr. Kimmelman earned his Ed.D. from the University of Toledo.
Sabrina Laine, Ph.D.
Sabrina Laine, Ph.D., is a chief program officer at Learning Point Associates and the director of the TQ Center funded by the U.S. Department of Education and a principal investigator for the Center for Educator Compensation Reform. Dr. Laine has a diverse background in educational policy research and teacher quality and has spearheaded efforts to contribute to policy research and resource development related to issues of teacher quality and quantity. Her work includes several published studies on teacher supply and demand, teacher professional development, alternative certification, teacher recruitment and retention, and teacher turnover. Dr. Laine is former chief officer for research and development at Learning Point Associates and former acting director of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory ® (NCREL®)—the regional educational laboratory (REL) serving the Midwest. Dr. Laine is skilled in working closely and effectively with local, state, regional, and federal education agencies; sensitive to the challenges faced by educators in urban, rural, and low-performing schools; agile in establishing and sustaining collaborative relationships with other organizations; and efficient in managing both financial and human resources. She earned her doctorate in education leadership and policy studies from Indiana University.
Amy McIntosh is the chief talent officer of the New York City Department of Education. In this role, she designs and implements strategies to recruit, develop, and retain effective teachers and principals across the system. McIntosh planned the pilot of what is now the Empowerment Schools organization and launched the Partnership for Teacher Excellence, a grant-funded initiative bringing together key stakeholders to develop improved models for preparing shortage area teachers to work in high-needs NYC schools. Prior to her work in education, McIntosh had a distinguished career in the private sector. Her prior leadership roles have included senior vice president, Dun and Bradstreet; CEO, Zagat Survey LLC; and a variety of senior management roles at Verizon and American Express. In addition, McIntosh served on the Board of Teach for America, New York City, from 1997 to 2004, including five years as chair. She earned her master's degree from Harvard University.
Susan Moore Johnson, Ed.D.
Susan Moore Johnson, Ed.D., studies and teaches about teacher policy, organizational change, and administrative practice. A former high-school teacher and administrator, she has a continuing research interest in the work of teachers and the reform of schools. She has studied the leadership of superintendents, the effects of collective bargaining on schools, the use of incentive pay plans for teachers, and the school as a context for adult work. Currently, Dr. Moore Johnson and a group of advanced doctoral students are engaged in a multiyear research study, The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, which examines how best to recruit, support, and retain a strong teaching force in the next decade. The project, which is funded by several foundations, includes studies of hiring practices, alternative certification programs, new teachers' attitudes toward careers, and new teachers' experiences with colleagues. Dr. Moore Johnson served as academic dean of the Ed School from 1993 to 1999. She has taught in the school's summer institute programs for administrators and teachers since 1989. Dr. Moore Johnson earned her Ed.D. from Harvard University.
George "Pinky" Nelson, Ph.D.
George "Pinky" Nelson, Ph.D., is the director of science, mathematics, and technology education and professor of physics and astronomy at Western Washington University in Bellingham, Washington. From 1996 to 2001, he was director of Project 2061 and a member of the senior staff of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. From 1989 to 1996, Dr. Nelson was associate vice provost for research and associate professor of astronomy and education at the University of Washington. From 1978 to 1989, he served as a NASA astronaut and flew as a mission specialist aboard three space shuttle flights. Dr. Nelson was the pilot of the first operational flight of the manned maneuvering unit. He also served on the crew of the Discovery flight in September 1989 immediately following the loss of the Challenger. He has advised NASA through service on a number of committees, most recently as chair of the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Missions 3A and 3B External Independent Readiness Review Team. Dr. Nelson earned his M.S. and Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of Washington.
Angela Penfold, a senior research associate at RMC Research Corporation, directs the Center on Instruction, one of five content centers within the Comprehensive Center program. The Center on Instruction supports the 16 regional comprehensive centers by providing research-based resources, professional development, and technical assistance in the areas of reading, mathematics, science, special education, and English language learning. Prior to joining the Center on Instruction, Penfold provided technical assistance to states in the implementation of Reading First and has worked on a variety of evaluation and other technical assistance projects. In addition, she completed a teacher education program in Japanese language instruction at The Japan Foundation's headquarters in Urawa, Japan. Penfold earned her M.Ed. from Harvard University.
Nancy Protheroe, a consultant working with projects for the Center on Innovation & Improvement (CII), is director of special research projects at Educational Research Service. She has managed the development and production of a variety of products intended to analyze and summarize research and practice on critical issues for use by school personnel and has authored more than 100 books, articles, and overviews of research. Her special interests include school-level and district-level efforts to improve student achievement, and she codirected one of the first studies of school district improvement efforts with Gordon Cawelti. Her work at CII has included writing for a CII-produced publication, Handbook on Restructuring and Substantial School Improvement, which received a first place award in the publications competition of Division H of the American Educational Research Association. Currently, she is involved in an ongoing project in which CII is collaborating with the Virginia Department of Education, the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, and the Virginia Foundation for Educational Leadership to build capacity of school districts and schools using research-based information about effective practices. The model being developed, along with supporting resources, will be available for use by other comprehensive centers and the states with which they are working.
Dan Reschly, Ph.D.
Dan Reschly, Ph.D., is professor of education and psychology in Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, where he chaired the Department of Special Education from 1998 to 2006. From 1975 to 1998, Dr. Reschly directed the Iowa State University School Psychology Program. He has published on the topics of response to intervention, reduction of special education disproportionality, identification of disabilities (high incidence, minority issues), and policy issues in special education. He currently is the principal investigator for special needs for the TQ Center. Dr. Reschly has trained teachers, principals, and related services personnel in 27 states regarding implementation of the response to intervention process. He has been active in state and national leadership roles including president of the National Association of School Psychologists, editor of the School Psychology Review, chair of NASP Graduate Program Approval, president of the Society for the Study of School Psychology, and chair of the Council of Directors of School Psychology Programs. Dr. Reschly served on the National Academy of Sciences Panels on Standards-Based Reform and the Education of Students With Disabilities and Minority Overrepresentation in Special Education. Dr. Reschly earned his doctoral degree from the University of Oregon.
Marguerite Roza, Ph.D.
Marguerite Roza, Ph.D., serves as a research associate professor with the Center on Reinventing Public Education at the University of Washington. Dr. Roza's research focuses on education spending and productivity. Recent research has documented the real dollar implications of education policies once realized across schools within districts. Her calculations of dollar implications and cost-equivalent tradeoffs have prompted changes in education finance policy at all levels in the education system. Her work has been published by Education Sector, the Brookings Institution, Education Next, and the Peabody Journal of Education. She served as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy teaching thermodynamics at the Naval Nuclear Power School. She has studied at the London School of Economics and the University of Amsterdam. Dr. Roza earned her Ph.D. in education from the University of Washington.
Ted Stilwill is chief operating officer and chief program officer for state services at Learning Point Associates. As Iowa's director of education for nearly 10 years, Stilwill oversaw the development, passage, and implementation of landmark teacher quality and student achievement legislation that improved the salary and professional development support systems for Iowa teachers while maintaining strong accountability for increased student learning. Prior to becoming the state's chief state school officer, Stilwill served as the administrator of the Iowa Department of Education's Elementary and Secondary Education Division. His career also includes 18 years in various classroom and administrative positions at the school and district levels. Stilwill is a past president and former board member of several organizations including the Council of Chief State School Officers and Education Commission of the States. He is skilled in project management, staff supervision, problem solving, general management, public speaking, and consensus building. Stilwill earned his M.S. in teaching from Drake University.
Steven Sun is a legislative aide to Representative Susan A. Davis (CA-53). He is the congresswoman's primary advisor on issues relating to education, labor, economy, taxes, poverty, welfare, children, mentoring, federal employees, and arts. Previously, Sun worked as a field organizer on Jill Derby's campaign for the second congressional district of Nevada for which he served as lead organizer in nine northern counties.
Susan Tave Zelman, Ph.D.
Susan Tave Zelman, Ph.D., works for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and is former superintendent of public instruction with the Ohio Department of Education. During Tave Zelman's time as superintendent, national and state results showed that Ohio increased average student scores on state tests and empowered high school students to outperform national SAT and ACT averages. Previously, Dr. Tave Zelman served as deputy commissioner of the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, worked for the Massachusetts Department of Education, and chaired the Department of Education at Emmanuel College in Boston. She holds a Ph.D. in education from the University of Michigan.
John Tyler, Ed.D.
John Tyler, Ed.D., is on the faculty of Brown University where he brings the training and perspective of an applied microeconomist to a wide range of education policy questions. Much of his past work addressed the extent to which various education credentials and programs assist low-skilled individuals, such as dropouts, to navigate the information age economy, and he is considered one of the nation's experts on the economic benefits of the GED credential. More recently, Dr. Tyler has turned to teacher quality issues focusing on ways in which student test data can be combined with peer-based classroom observations to identify effective classroom teachers. Recently, he was named by the Council of Great City Schools as one of three Senior Urban Education Research Fellows in 2008 for his work examining the extent to which and how teachers use student performance data to inform their classroom practice. He earned his doctorate from the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 1998.
Kirk Walters is a research analyst at American Institutes for Research. In addition to serving as senior math specialist for the National High School Center, Walters is the task leader of professional development for the Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study, a large-scale randomized field trial supported by the Institute of Education Sciences. He also serves as the deputy evaluation director of the Pathways to Math Achievement Study and codirector of the evaluation of the Accelerated Algebra Project. Walters, a Ph.D. candidate in education policy studies, formerly taught middle and high school mathematics, was a department chair, and developed and delivered mathematics professional development. His dissertation focuses on the extent to which teachers utilize professional knowledge in the classroom.
Gretchen Weber is a senior program associate who specializes in teacher quality and leadership at Learning Point Associates, provides expertise for teacher quality policy, publications, products, and technical assistance. Weber coordinates the technical assistance for the regional comprehensive centers, including the capacity-building events, such as issue forums and the annual conference. A skilled project manager, she has led the technical assistance and professional services efforts with school districts to assist them with meeting the highly qualified teacher provision of NCLB and improving their instructional leadership capacity-building abilities. Weber also leads the consultation and technical assistance services on induction and mentoring to multiple Illinois school districts and serves as a member of an Illinois policy team focused on induction and mentoring and has contributed to the writing of induction program standards for the state. She has worked with a wide range of student populations in both suburban and urban settings. Having served in a leadership capacity during her years teaching, Weber acted as a technology facilitator, mentor, and lead teacher to provide technical assistance and professional development to assist teachers in improving the implementation of technology and differentiated instruction in reading, writing, mathematics, and other content areas. She has presented nationally and locally to deliver professional development to many audiences and is a National Board Certified teacher. Weber earned her master's of education in curriculum and instruction from National-Louis University.
Jane West, Ph.D.
Jane West, Ph.D., is senior vice president at the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE), where she directs the department of policy, programs, and professional issues. Dr. West brings more than 30 years of education and public policy experience to the organization as a former teacher, education administrator, PTA officer, researcher, and university faculty member. Dr. West served as senior policy analyst for the Presidential Commission on the HIV Epidemic under President Ronald Reagan and was staff director of the Senate Subcommittee on Disability Policy under the leadership of Senator Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. of Connecticut. She has published several articles on education policy issues and edited two books. She served on the faculties of the University of San Francisco and Johns Hopkins University. Since joining AACTE, Dr. West has led the organization's effort to build a unified voice for educator preparation during the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act and NCLB policy deliberations. She orchestrates AACTE's annual "Day on the Hill," has initiated numerous advocacy activities with AACTE state chapters, and leads the effort to increase federal funding for educator preparation. Dr. West earned her master's degree from Columbia University and her Ph.D. from the University of Maryland.
Judy Wurtzel is codirector of the Education and Society program at The Aspen Institute. The program helps local, state, and national education leaders share knowledge about how school systems can improve the education and life chances of poor and minority students and works with them to create programs and policies to accomplish these goals. Current initiatives include the Aspen Senior Congressional Staff Network, the Aspen Urban Superintendents' Network and complementary Urban Literacy and Mathematics Leadership Networks, and a project on rethinking human capital in urban school districts. Prior to joining the Aspen Institute, Wurtzel served as executive director of the Learning First Alliance, a permanent partnership of 12 national education associations with more than 10 million members. In addition, Wurtzel served as a senior advisor at the U.S. Department of Education, working on a wide range of elementary and secondary education issues. Prior to her work in Washington, Wurtzel practiced law in New York City and taught English as a second language in a Moroccan high school. She currently serves on the boards of College Summit-National Capital Region and TeachFirst, Inc.
Copies of the following resources were distributed at the issue forum on CD.
Gen Y Teachers
- Coaches Are More Effective than Mentors
- 'Gen Y' Teachers Want to Innovate; Education Leaders Lag Behind
- Holding On To A New generation of Teachers
Partnerships and Standards
- What is "Learning"?
- The Dilemmas of Professional Development
- PBS TeacherLine National Survey of Teacher Professional Development
- National Staff Development Council's Standards For Staff Development
- Studies of the Impact of Professional Development
- Professional Partnerships and Standards
- Development Stages of Teachers
- Bridging the Gap Between Standards and Achievement
Research Policy Action
- Teaching Teachers: Professional Development To Improve Student Achievement
- Changing Teacher Beliefs and Instructional Practices
- Designing Effective Professional Development Experiences: What Do We Know?
- Key Issue: Identifying How Highly Effective Leaders Support Teachers
- Key Issue: Identifying Professional Contexts to Support Highly Effective Teachers
- Leading Lesson Study: A Practical Guide for Teachers and Facilitators
- The Professional Development Pathways Model: From Policy to Practice
- Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement
- A Review Of State Teacher Policies: What Are They, What Are Their Effects, And What Are Their Implications For School Finance?
- Doing What Works
- History and Future of Title II A
Technical Assistance Workshops
- Unpacking the Factors That Contribute to the Distribution of Highly Qualified and Experienced Teachers
- Using Innovation Configurations to Improve Teacher Preparateion Leading to Improved Teacher Qualifications and Enhanced Student Outcomes
- Using Interest-Based Bargaining to Support Teacher and Leadershi Quality Reform Initiatives.