General Resources

Minority Teacher Recruitment, Employment and Retention, 1987 to 2013

This brief from the Learning Policy Institute examines the effectiveness of state efforts to recruit, employ, and retain minority K-12 teachers. Results are based on a study of teacher recruitment data from 1987 to 2013. The study concludes that though efforts to recruit and place minority teachers in high-needs schools have been largely successful, retention rates have been low. Other findings indicate that two key determinants of retention are the degree of teachers' classroom autonomy and teacher input into school decisions.

A Coming Crisis in Teaching? Teacher Supply, Demand and Shortages in the U.S.

This report from the Learning Policy Institute uses federal databases to analyze current trends in teacher shortages and to project future shortage trends. It identifies four principal factors that drive teacher shortages: high attrition rates, increasing student enrollment, declining teacher preparation enrollment, and district attempts to reduce student-teacher ratios. With a projected shortfall of around 300,000 teachers by 2020, the report identifies some policy strategies that could be used to improve recruitment and selection practices. 

Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance after Three Years

This report outlines findings from a study of the 2010 cohort of Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) Program grantees in their third year of implementation. The report provides an in-depth analysis of the impacts of pay-for-performance bonuses on teacher and student outcomes in ten districts. Findings indicate that student achievement after three years in TIF schools was 1 to 2 percentile points higher than in non-TIF schools, which is roughly equivalent to a gain of four additional weeks of learning.

Creative Leadership Achieves Student Success

This brief examines the CLASS project, an Oregon initiative intended to close the achievement gap by improving teacher quality by expanding career paths for teachers, and improving evaluations, professional development, and salary options. The paper includes an overview of the CLASS project model, the legislative and policy actions necessary to implement the model, an analysis of its impact, and a summary of lessons learned.

Does Teaching Experience Increase Teacher Effectiveness? A Review of the Research

This paper reviews 30 studies from the past 15 years on the effect teaching experience has on student outcomes and concludes that teaching experience is positively associated with student gains, both on standardized testing, and on other measures, including attendance.

Support for Instructional Leadership

Based on survey feedback from its American School Leader Panel, a nationally representative sample of principals in small, medium, and large school districts, the RAND corporation investigated the prevalence and value of three types of on-the-job supports districts provide to principals: supervisory, mentoring, and professional development.

Achieving Equitable Access to Strong Teachers: A Guide for District Leaders

This guide offers tools to assist district leaders in the development of policies to ensure that all students have equitable access to excellent teachers. Building on the experiences of districts that have made efforts in recent years to address equitable access, this guide outlines seven steps—including analysis, goal-setting, and monitoring—that districts can take to identify teacher inequities, determine their causes, and implement effective solutions.

Mitigating Teacher Shortages: Evaluation and Feedback

This brief from the Education Commission of the States focuses on teacher evaluation and feedback as a strategy for retaining teachers. The report asserts that effective teacher evaluation, incorporating observations accompanied by meaningful feedback, demonstrates employer investment in professional growth and development and positively affects teacher retention.

Mitigating Teacher Shortages: Alternative Teacher Certification

This brief from the Education Commission of the States focuses on alternative certification as a strategy for recruiting teachers. The report examines how hiring teachers with alternative certifications can bring educators with varying skillsets and workplace experiences into the profession and increase diversity in the teacher workforce. 

Mitigating Teacher Shortages: Induction and Mentorship

This brief from the Education Commission of the States examines teacher induction and mentorship as a strategy for retaining teachers. The report outlines the multiple benefits of comprehensive induction programs for new teachers, including professional growth, improved student outcomes, and lower rates of attrition.


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